The confluence of UX and DX for API Design

VP of Technology, Opreto

7 minute read

Do you know what happens when a group of people connect to a Chromecast device through Spotify? Nobody knows. The outcome is evenly distributed between wiping your queue, playing something random from your device, connecting only a subset of the group to the device, moving a random group member’s queue onto your device, or establishing a group connection as expected. It’s a big User Experience (UX) problem because it breaks the Principle Of Least Astonishment (POLA), among other things. In fact, I’ve taken the liberty to mock up a revamped Spotify user interface for Chromecast group sessions, free of charge:

The new UI does nothing to fix the broken functionality but improves the UX by making it clear to the user that anything could happen if any UI element is interacted with once the session begins. It also makes it clear that the connection may or may not be established at all. You’ll sometimes even hear the familiar “ding” on the target device, and the app will tell you it’s connected, but once you attempt to begin playback, the music will play on your phone, and the connection indicator will just fade to grey.

This isn’t the level of quality one would expect out a poster child of agile software development who employs so many talented engineer, so why is this happening?

We can speculate all day long about lack of QA, obscure race conditions, algorithmic shortcuts and whatnots, but the most likely issue here is this is an integration problem.

Let’s list the various elements that must play well together for a group session to work properly:

  • A disparate set of operating systems (Android and iOS, but also various versions of each OS) are running on people’s devices.
  • The various device manufacturers have implemented their own kernel extensions, battery optimizations, protocol enhancements, etc.
  • Various versions of the Spotify app are installed on each device.
  • Google’s Chromecast services.
  • The target device must provide an API compatible with Google’s, but it may very well be a 3rd-party device.
  • Finally, the Spotify client applications on all devices must synchronize through a peer-to-peer protocol, or through Spotify’s backend services.

The list of permutations that need to be accounted for and rigorously tested is astounding.

In a closed and controlled enterprise software ecosystem, we would typically leverage powerful observability tools such as distributed tracing to fully understand and simulate all the scenarios that we want to cover, but when interacting with 3rd-party entities and manufacturers, we must rely on trial and error, and most importantly, trust. Yikes.

Trusting other developers, manufacturers, and various implementors is par for the course when dealing with 3rd-party APIs. APIs are the backbone of the interconnected digital world. They enable communication between different software components. It’s no longer just about building robust systems but ensuring they play well with others. This intertwining of UX, Developer Experience (DX), and API design provides the groundwork for high software quality.


User Experience (UX) is often shrouded in misconceptions and oversimplifications. UX is a vast, multidimensional field that reaches far beyond visuals. It’s like an intricate machine with numerous cogs and gears, each vital in ensuring a seamless user interaction. It’s not just what you see; it’s what you feel, how you navigate, and even the emotions that a digital experience evokes.

Scroll through any online job board, and you’ll be flooded with posts clamoring for “UX Designers.” But dig a little deeper, and it quickly becomes apparent that many of these listings are actually seeking glorified UI designers, not true experts in User Experience Design (UXD). The market, in its relentless quest for cost efficiency, has often misguidedly lumped together some aspects of UX with graphic design. This decision to hand over intricate UX responsibilities to cheaper graphic designers rather than investing in specialized UXD experts is a telling sign of how superficial the understanding of UX can be.

Wikipedia’s UX Article lists research, visual design, information architecture, interaction design, usability, accessibility, and Human-computer interaction as key UX design elements. When thinking about UX from that perspective, we see several elements applicable to designing interactions between systems.


For a seamless UX, the developer’s journey is equally vital. The ease with which developers can integrate, modify, and troubleshoot a system plays a huge role.

DX, alas, is where most enterprises fall short. Look for DX positions in a job board and you’ll understand why: organizations don’t see DX as an actual role, but rather an activity to be performed by the development team. If the organization doesn’t insist on applying the same rigor for DX that it does for UX, you end up with a group of developers who build the integrations they feel would be useful for themselves.

Organizations that grok DX see it as more than just a checklist item. They recognize that understanding developers’ needs, pain points, and workflows is crucial. They don’t just throw together documentation or provide support as an afterthought; they invest in comprehensive, up-to-date resources that include interactive examples, tutorials, and hands-on experimentation.

Unlike companies that only solicit feedback as a formality, these organizations continuously engage with their developer community. They don’t just react to problems but actively predict and prevent them, using analytics and monitoring.

Community engagement is another distinguishing factor. Organizations serious about DX invest time and resources to build and nurture developer communities. They encourage open forums, events, and collaboration, practicing transparency in their development, changes, and decision-making processes. In contrast, others may keep developers at a distance, lacking genuine engagement.

A true understanding of DX is strategic, user-centered, ethical, and innovative. It’s woven into the organization’s culture, values, and goals, not just an isolated task or a checkbox to tick off. It involves a deep commitment, proactive support, community engagement, and alignment with real-world needs, differentiating itself from superficial or disconnected efforts that fail to leverage DX’s rich opportunities.

Best DX Practices for API designers

As we’ve seen with the Spotify Chromecast example above, quality suffers when organizations don’t take DX seriously. While API design is merely one of the many DX-related activities, it serves as a critical touchpoint that can make or break the overall experience for developers, shaping how they interact with, adopt, and advocate for your products and services.

API designers have a unique role in shaping the Developer Experience. The following best practices can guide API designers in truly enhancing DX, rather than merely going through the motions:

Certainly! Including the core activities of UX within the context of DX for API design, we can revise the section as follows:

  • Embrace User Research: Understand your developers through interviews, surveys, and observations. Discover their needs, pain points, expectations, and preferences to inform the design of your API.

  • Invest in Interaction Design: Design the flow and interactions of your API, considering the developer’s journey. Make it intuitive, predictable, and efficient, reducing the cognitive load and enhancing satisfaction.

  • Focus on Human-Computer Interaction: Consider how developers interact with your API and integrate it into their workflow. Offer a seamless, user-friendly experience that aligns with human behavior.

  • Build Robust Information Architecture: Organize and structure your API logically, making it easier for developers to find what they need. Clear categorization and intuitive navigation enhance usability.

  • Prioritize Usability: Conduct usability tests to identify friction points and areas for improvement. Encourage iterative testing and refinements to ensure an optimal developer experience.

  • Create Comprehensive, Clear Documentation: Merge content strategy with information architecture to create thorough, accessible documentation. Include examples, tutorials, and interactive experiences that align with your developers’ needs.

  • Design for Consistency and Simplicity: Apply visual design principles and consistency to make your API easy to learn and use. Align with standard conventions and maintain consistency across endpoints.

  • Provide Tools and Support Channels: Support the human-computer interaction by offering SDKs, libraries, or plugins. Create community support channels, FAQs, and dedicated developer support to foster a sense of community.

  • Consider Ethical and Security Aspects: Ethical design considers the broader implications of your API, including privacy and data handling. Make sure to adhere to ethical standards and prioritize security.

  • Foster a Culture of Continuous Improvement: Embrace a holistic approach, encompassing user research, interaction design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, and usability. Stay adaptable to emerging technologies and developers’ evolving needs.

  • Communicate Changes Proactively: If you need to make changes to the API, communicate them well in advance and provide detailed migration guides. A transparent approach builds trust and minimizes disruptions.

It may sound counterintuitive, but API design is a human-centered activity. It should be treated as such. This approach fosters innovation, collaboration, and trust within the developer community. It acknowledges that DX is not an isolated task or a one-time effort but a long-term commitment that intertwines with the organization’s broader goals, values, and success. It leads to thriving ecosystems, interconnected systems, and sustainable growth.